The classic furniture of Ming and Qing Dynasties are solid wood furniture with tenon and tenon structure, and the exterior is painted to decorate and maintain the furniture. Therefore, the performance of wood and paint determines the maintenance and maintenance requirements of classical furniture.
1. Anti-drying and moisture-proof Changes in temperature and humidity will cause fiber expansion and contraction, resulting in furniture deformation or even damage. Excessive humidity is not easy to breed mold and insect pests. Therefore, the collection of Ming and Qing furniture must pay attention to the changes in temperature and humidity. In a dry climate, indoor humidity must be maintained, and windows must be opened for ventilation in time during the rainy season. Ming and Qing furniture should be kept away from heat, power, and water sources, and should be kept away from direct sunlight. Generally, it should be placed in a cool, ventilated place. If the air is particularly dry, you can put a proper amount of bonsai, fish tank, etc. to adjust the relative humidity of the air. The suitable environmental conditions for collecting Ming and Qing furniture are: temperature 15-25℃ and relative humidity 55-75%. Under this condition, wood has low elasticity, paint has high durability, and furniture is not easy to be deformed.
2. Dust-proof and moth-proof This is the most basic protective measure. It is necessary to minimize the dust in the room where the furniture is stored. If there is dust on the surface of the furniture, you can wipe it with a duster and a clean cotton cloth to keep the furniture tidy. The rag for wiping the furniture should be clean and soft, and no water droplets or watermarks should be left on the furniture. It should be noted that it is strictly forbidden to clean the surface of Ming and Qing furniture with organic solvents such as gasoline, benzene, and acetone. Regularly check the moth-eaten condition, and put an appropriate amount of solid anti-moth agent in the closed furniture such as boxes and cabinets to prevent pests. If a borer is found, it should be killed immediately.
3. Light-proof and fire-proof Furniture is made of wood and is easy to burn. Therefore, the place where the furniture is displayed should have strict fire-proof measures. In addition, do not place the furniture in direct sunlight, because the sun's rays have a damaging effect on the furniture. Infrared rays will increase the surface temperature of the furniture and decrease the humidity, causing warping and brittleness. Ultraviolet rays are more harmful to furniture. The paint film will fade and even fall off when damaged by ultraviolet rays. It will also damage the wood fiber structure and reduce the mechanical strength. Even if the light is stopped, it will continue to cause damage in the dark.
4. Careful use and active maintenance. Furniture should be handled with care when moving, and prevent sharp objects from hitting hard objects during use. When placing items on the furniture, a layer of soft film should be used, and the paint film should be handled gently in the vertical direction to avoid damage to the paint film. The feet of the furniture should be nailed with rubber pads to avoid damage when moving back and forth. Furniture should be maintained regularly. Under normal circumstances, wax is applied quarterly to maintain the paint film. If the paint film is damaged, find a professional to repair it, so that it can really guarantee the structure of the furniture material.
5. Repair as it is. Due to the age, Ming and Qing furniture needs to be repaired not a few. The restoration should strictly follow the principle of "repair as it is". The form, production method, structural feature and material texture should not be dismantled, modified, added or subtracted at will, and the original appearance and integrity of the original must be maintained. Never use iron nails and chemical adhesives in the restoration to prevent damage to the traditional features of Ming and Qing furniture that are easy to disassemble and repair.
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